Facial Neuromuscular
Retraining Program

Treatment Program

Clinical Studies

Indications for Referral

In 1982, Balliet et al described a comprehensive clinical program that combined EMG feedback, mirror exercises and a detailed home exercise program and demonstrated improved function with patients with more than two years post facial nerve injury.

In 1991, Ross et al compared two treatment groups with a third control group that received no treatment. 5 All patients were more than 18 months post Bell's palsy or acoustic neuroma excision with facial nerve paresis. One group was treated with EMG feedback and mirror exercises, the second group received mirror exercises alone and the third group had no treatment. Patients in both treatment groups demonstrated improvement in facial motor control, excursion of movement and decreased synkinesis. The control group showed no change. A follow-up study one year later showed that the gains were maintained without continued treatment.

  1. Waxman B: Electrotherapy for Treatment of Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell's Palsy). Health Technology Assessments Reports, National Center for Health Services Research 1984;3:27.  
  2 Cohan CS, Kater SB: Suppression of neurite elongation and growth cone motility by electrical activity. Science 1986; 232:1638-1640.  
  3. Balliet R, Lewis L: Hypothesis: Craig's "face saving exercises" may cause facial dysfunction. Canadian Acoustic Neuroma Association Connection, 1985.  
  4. Balliet R, Shinn JB, Bach-y-Rita P: Facial paralysis rehabilitation: Retraining selective muscle control. Int Rehab Med, 1982; 4:67-74.  
  5. Ross B, Nedzelski JM, McLean JA: Efficacy of feedback training in long-standing facial nerve paresis. Laryngoscope 1991; 101(7):744-750.  
    292 Main Street North, Markham, Ont. L3P 1Y8
Tel: (905) 472-8978